The British government refused the demand for independence of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, resulting in the Second Boer War.
Afrikaner settlers of Dutch descent had controlled Transvaal and the Orange Free State in South Africa since 1881. The discovery of diamonds at Kimberley and gold in the Transvaal led to hordes of British prospectors who threatened to outnumber the Afrikaner ‘Boers’. The Boers taxed the incomers heavily and refused them citizenship. A British-led raid was organised in order to overthrow the Boer government. The raid failed and led to the demand for independence of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The British government refused and the Second Boer War started.